DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION As shown schematically in Figure 1, a preferred WEC comprises a first, annular float 10 of a generally flat configuration, and a second, elongated float 3 WO 2007/130385 PCT/US2007/010513 20, referred to as a “spar” float, extending through an opening 22 through the annular float 10. In accordance with known technology, the two floats are configured to bob up and down in generally out of phase relationship in response to passing surface waves.
- Aumentar la flexibilidad de los músculos
- Equipment according to claim 1, wherein, each transducer is made of electroactive material
- Hinchazón intestinal y trastornos del tránsito (estreñimiento o diarrea)
- Esclerosis múltiple
- Dolor o distensión abdominal (dilatación)
- En el ataque al corazón los síntomas son repentinos, intensos y duraderos
- Coloca la taza de agua a hervir
- Estrés y depresión
Relative WO 2007/130385 PCT/US2007/010513 movements between the floats are used for driving an energy converter, for example, an electrical generator connected between the floats for generating electrical or any useful energy. WO 2007/130385 PCT/US2007/010513 DAMPING (HEAVE) PLATES HAVING IMPROVED CHARACTERISTICS BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention claims priority from provisional application SIN 60/796,388 filed 5/1/2006 for Wave Energy Converter (WEC) with Heave Plates whose contents are incorporated herein by reference.
Also, as disclosed in co-pending patent applications, titled “Heave Plate with Improved Characteristics” bearing S/N , and ‘Wave Energy Converter (WEC) with Heave Plates bearing SIN , assigned to the assignee of the present application, and the subject matter of which is incorporated herein by reference as though fully set forth herein, the addition of a vertically extending structure, e.g. Returning to the matter of adding mass to the system, a vertical structure, such as shown in Figs. With the added vertical structure, an additional amount of fluid is moved as a function of the volume enclosed by the plate and the added surrounding structure, i.e. In Fig. 4, the added structure comprises an elliptic cylinder 60 (a 3 dimensional object with an oblong cross-section) surrounding the plate 30. This results in a larger addition to the mass added to the plate 30 then that provided by the structure shown in Fig.
Dolor Sordo En El Pecho
In accordance with the present invention, the projecting structure has a streamlined configuration, including curved hydrodynamic surfaces, for minimizing turbulence in the surrounding water and attendant drag forces. Figure 1 is a side view of a wave energy converter of known type including an elongated “spar” float having a damping plate attached to the lower end thereof; Figure 2 shows the lower end of the spar float shown in Figure 1 but with a known modification of the damping plate; and Figures 3 through 9 are similar to Figure 2 but show damping plates according to the instant invention. In Fig. 7, the added member comprises a cylinder 72 having a wall of V shaped cross section thus including both vertical and horizontal components. Figure 7 also shows the placement of smooth (blunt-shaped) objects, here, full circular tubes 74 at the ends of the cylinder 72 for keeping the fluid flow attached to the structure for decreasing the drag coefficient.
Other objects, such as the semi-circular rims 66 and 70 shown respectively in Figs. The curved shape of the rims keeps the fluid flow attached to the structure thus decreasing the drag coefficient. 2, in an added mass proportional to the height of the tube 50 above and below the plate 30 multiplied by the area of the plate 30, but with the added effect that the area of the plate is increased by the area of the circular tube 50. An advantage of this embodiment is that the smooth circular shape of the vertical portion of the tube wall keeps the fluid flow attached to the structure thus decreasing the drag coefficient. The additional added mass achieved by the vertical cylinder 68 is proportional to the 8 WO 2007/130385 PCT/US2007/010513 height of the cylinder multiplied by the area of the damping plate.
Dolor Muscular Antebrazo
The plates can be edge-joined to one another, thus comprising a cylinder enclosing the plate 30. The additional added mass achieved by the vertical plates is, for movements in either the up or down direction, proportional to the vertical height of the plates 40 above or below the plate 30, respectively, multiplied by the area of the plate 30. The structure shown in Fig. As previously described, the damping plate 30, by itself, moves a volume of fluid proportional to the “equivalent volume” of the plate, determined primarily by the area of the plate. The volume of fluid moved is also a function of the frequency with which the plate is moving. Dolor parte izquierda baja de la espalda . In Fig. 5, the addition comprises semi-circular beads or rims 66 facing away from the plate 30 at the top and bottom ends of a vertical cylinder 68 (as in Fig. 2 provided the longer side is oriented perpendicular to the plate 30. The smooth shape of the elliptic cylinder tends to keep the fluid flow attached to the structure thus decreasing the drag coefficient.
Dolores Musculares Covid19
An advantage of this is that the fluid inside the rims is isolated from the fluid around the plate structure thus decreasing the strength of the vortex shedding and hence the drag coefficient. This is advantageous for WECs since decreasing the drag coefficient will result in larger relative motions and hence allowing for a more efficient capture of energy. Flow separation can (and in the case of damping plates does) result in increased drag as the object moves through the fluid.
As in the foregoing examples, the horizontal components result in added mass by adding to the equivalent volume of the plate 30, while the added mass achieved by the vertical components is the height of such components multiplied by the area of the plate. While useful for adding effective mass to a float, a problem associated with the use of damping plates, at least in connection with WECs, is that the viscous drag forces associated with the plates tends to impede relative movements, thus 2 WO 2007/130385 PCT/US2007/010513 tending to negatively affect power generation. A damping plate 30 is disposed at the lower end of the spar float 20 for increasing its effective mass. In Fig. 3 the added structure comprises a tube 50 of circular cross-section and outer diameter D disposed along the edge of the plate 30. This results, similarly as in Fig.
5 except that the rims 70 face inwardly of the plate edge. In Fig. 2, the added structure comprises a number of thin plates 40 secured to and extending completely around the edge of the damping plate 30 and perpendicular thereto. In Fig. Bursitis de rodilla sin dolor . 6, the additional structure is similar to that shown in Fig. The smooth shapes of the circular members 80 and 84 help to keep fluid flow attached to the structure.
The members 80 and 84 are shown as being relatively thick and hollow. In Figs. 8 and 9, the addition of thick circular members 80 or 84 to the plate 30 with vertical dimensions curving towards or away from the spar 20, respectively, increase the added mass as a function, as in previous examples, of the product of the vertical dimension and the plate area. The equivalent volume of the plate depends upon the geometry of the plate, and the general rule is that the equivalent volume is equal to the area of 4 WO 2007/130385 PCT/US2007/010513 the plate multiplied by a height dimension equal to a lateral dimension of the plate; for example, the width of a rectangular plate, the side of a square plate, or the diameter of a circular plate. 2-9, is added to the damping plates for increasing the 6 WO 2007/130385 PCT/US2007/010513 volume of fluid moved by the plates.
Dolor Muscular Cadera
Thus, when the spar damping plate unit is moving in heave, the flow of water past these sharp edges has a tendency to create vortices, creating a turbulent boundary layer, hence increasing the damping of the system. 2 damping plate 30, however, is that the 7 WO 2007/130385 PCT/US2007/010513 plates 40 terminate in sharp edges which tend to generate undesirably high drag forces.
Dolor Neuropático Periférico
A boundary layer of fluid is created around an object due to the friction of the fluid against the surface of the object. The effect of the damping plate 30 is to add mass significantly greater than that of the plate itself to the spar float 20. Such added mass is due to the fact that the acceleration or deceleration of the plate requires movement of some volume of fluid around the plate as it moves. Form (or profile or pressure) drag is mainly due to boundary layer separation of the fluid due to the form, i.e. Thus if a blunt shaped object is moved only a fraction of its diameter no flow separation occurs. In contrast to sharp edges, the flow-around blunt shaped structures without sharp corners, such as cylinders or spheres, can exhibit no flow separation, separation with no vortex shedding, and separation with vortex shedding coinciding with an increase in heave amplitude (often evaluated normalized by the diameter of the object in heave; see, Faltinsen, O.M.