Other wind flow models are considered including those that model wind flow as having first or second order dynamics, are driven by colored noise, etc. It should be understood by those skilled in the art that the terms “wind flow and “fluid-flow” as used herein includes other than wind speed and fluid speed values (such as but not limited to acceleration, correlations, etc.) used by other fluid-flow dynamic models. Since forces other than the wind influence these parameters, this method is not sufficiently accurate.
- Retrasa el envejecimiento
- Utthita parsvakonasana
- Los síntomas no varían con el paso del tiempo o a lo largo de un ciclo
- Has tenido una infección de las vías urinarias recientemente
- Dejar colgar los hombros y los codos
This model describes wind speed as being nearly constant but affected by gusts and the environment. This model describes the rate of change of wind speed (wind acceleration) as being nearly constant but affected by gusts and the environment. The equations of the turbine dynamics provide the basis for a controller using the wind flow and tower motion estimated values for improved turbine control and tower motion damping. The control provides a blade angle command component, which adjusts the turbine rotor blade angle in a manner to provide aerodynamic damping of the tower primary resonant frequency in response to a predicted motion signal. This provides additional, positive aerodynamic damping to the tower by modulating the blade angle chosen for constant torque/power in response to wind turbulence. Constant speed turbines adapt to increasing wind speed by detecting an increase in rotor rotation rate and then increasing the power generated.
Dolor Sordo Significado
For support structures that are tethered devices such as for underwater and lighter-than-air turbines that are held by cables, position may be determined or replaced by measuring cable parameters such as tension. It is desirable to provide a turbine control system including a wind or water flow estimator that estimates and tracks wind or water flow using the motion of the turbine support structure, such as a tower or underwater tether, as it moves in response to the flow. U.S. Pat. No. 4,435,647, to Harner, et al discloses tower-mounted wind turbine powered electric generating system, having a control to modulate rotor blade angle to maintain rated torque or power in turbulent wind. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates to a power generating system in which a turbine is mounted on a support structure held stationary in the horizontal axis with reference to the wind or water flow. The present invention would also have application to wind turbines that utilize extendible rotor blades such as described in U.S.
Tipos De Dolor Crónico
The present invention relates to wind turbines, and more specifically, to a wind flow estimator for a wind turbine having a rotor driven by wind applying power to turn rotor blades. FIG. 11 is a schematic view of a control system, regulating a vertical reciprocating IWET and other platform devices, employed by the IWECS for production of hydrogen from seawater, according to an embodiment of the present invention. Dolor de espalda hernia . The state vector cannot be estimated from tower acceleration measurements alone.
Although not stated in block 312, it will be understood by those skilled the art that blade length alone or in combination with blade pitch angle can be varied. It will be understood by those skilled in the art that controllers may not use the wind speed itself, but the support structure dynamics determined during the fluid-flow estimation procedure. While the invention has been particularly shown and described with reference to preferred embodiments thereof, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that the foregoing and other changes in form and detail may be made therein without departing from the scope of the invention. It should be understood by those skilled in the art that the term “support structure motion” and “tower motion” as used herein includes position, velocity, acceleration, and other expressions of motion. The turbine includes a rotor connected to a rotor hub.
The electric generator within the turbine 100 is driven by the rotor to produce electricity and is connected to power carrying cables inter-connecting to other units and/or to a power grid. The rotor diameter may be controlled by extending or retracting the blade extensions to fully extend the rotor at low flow velocity and to retract the rotor as flow velocity increases such that the loads delivered by or exerted upon the rotor do not exceed set limits. The flow starts at block 300. First, at block 302, the initial wind flow and tower position and velocity are estimated. Given the simplicity of acquiring high rate acceleration measurements, and the possibly intermittent position measurements (e.g. Given the small number of state variables (3), these matrix calculations are trivial.
Dolor Muscular Bayer
The acceleration noise is given by the acceleration sensor accuracy specifications, and the wind acceleration noise variance is selected to tune the filter response. To begin the algorithm, an initial guess of the state and of its covariance must be provided: x(0) and P xfiltered(0). Other more modern wind turbines operate at variable speed to produce DC power, which a converter changes to AC power synchronous with the attached power grid. Variable speed turbines generate power at all wind speeds, but have favored operating points at each wind speed that generate optimal power without over-stressing the components. Here a Kalman filter approach without operating point linearization is illustrated. It is a least squares, pole-placement, Kalman, H∞ or other type that is linearized about an operating point or not. Dolor de hombro y cuello izquierdo . If the rotor speed is not in sync with the grid, power is not generated.
A torque/power controlled blade pitch angle reference signal is generated for constant torque/power in response to wind turbulence. Constant speed operation is required for a direct link with a constant frequency electrical utility grid. FIG. 5 comprises four graphs in which actual sensed parameters versus estimated values are plotted for tower acceleration, tower speed, tower position and wind speed. FIG. 6 is a graph in which the actual wind speed and the estimated wind speed are plotted. METHOD OF OPERATION Refer to FIG.
In these figures, similar numerals refer to similar elements in the drawings. The accelerometer provides a motion signal indicative of acceleration of the tower in the direction of the rotor rotational axis. A less expensive position sensor is a tilt sensor mounted at the top of a support structure that is a tower and whose signal is a measure of the tower position as the tower tilts while moving back and forth. A motor moves the extender blade between a retracted position relative to the main blade section to a more extended position to expose more or less of the rotor to the wind. Also shown is the intermittent tilt sensor position data selected on acceleration zero-crossings. It should be understood that the sizes of the different components in the figures may not be to scale, or in exact proportion, and are shown for visual clarity and for the purpose of explanation.
Tipos De Dolor De Espalda
Pat. No. 5,289,041) estimate wind speed but not from tower measurements. Dolor de espalda media y baja . This increases the load torque on the rotor and keeps it from speeding up. No attempt is made to estimate wind flow from tower measurements. A Kalman filter is a computational algorithm that processes a time sequence of measurements to deduce an optimum estimate of the past, present, or future state of a system.
Conventional rotors utilize blades of fixed length, joined at a rotating hub.
ΔwindSpeedRate is a zero mean Gaussian white noise sequence representing the affect of wind gusts and the environment. Both variable pitch and stall regulated rotor blades with fixed diameters are well known in the art. Conventional rotors utilize blades of fixed length, joined at a rotating hub. The rotating shaft turns a drivetrain connected to the generator. Alternately, the generator rotation rate is sensed and, after accounting for intervening gears, used as a measure of the rotor rotation rate.
Alternately, tower velocity replaces acceleration as a measurement to fill in between position updates. Support structure velocity is measured using commercial Doppler radar, laser, sonar, or RF systems with a fixed target. Support structure acceleration is measured using any number of commercial accelerometers such as the PCH1026 by PCH Engineering having 0.015 m/s/s RMS noise floor.