The parameters listed define the wave configuration of unit 50 and in particular raft 70. The design process is one of examining the effect of each of the parameters on the unit response function operator and selecting that configuration that provides the most efficient system 10. Initially a configuration is selected for testing where the length of the raft is one-half the average wave length for the wave field, allowing a large amplitude of pitch, and the length of the yoke is one-fourth the average wave length. FIG. 14 shows how the amplitude and natural frequency of the rafts change as the length, beam to length ratio, and radius of gyration are varied. FIG. 2 illustrates an alternative deployment for sea states of approximately 70 to 80 kilowatts per meter using a rectangular pattern. FIG. 1 illustrates the preferred deployment of the units 50 of array 20 for a location approximately 7 miles offshore near Stewart Island, New Zealand, where sea states generate approximately 70 to 80 kilowatts per meter in water depths ranging from 150 feet to 300 feet.
Additionally, monitoring buoys 375 will be placed in the water in various locations near or within the array deployment site so as to monitor wave conditions. The total length of the unit 50 will be less than the average wave length of the incident seas for the average conditions. For the uniformly distributed mass system, the natural frequency of motion in response to wave action occurs at a higher frequency than the wave spectrum center frequency. In FIG. 19 the relative response function, plotted on the ordinate, shows a much broader response for the single acting piston (dotted line curve) than for the double acting piston (solid line curve). FIG. Como curar el dolor muscular de las piernas . 14 is a graph of the spectral density function of the wave field of FIG.
Dolores Musculares Causas
Wave 22 as illustrated in FIG. Curves R1 and R2 in FIG. For a rectangular barge-shaped raft, the area at the deck and waterline are equal. For purposes of the design of the present invention, only the point spectrum has been relied upon because the energy absorption of the present invention is insensitive to incident wave angle due to the proper selection of the beam to length ratio of unit 50. The absorption efficiency of unit 50 is high for waves at high angles of incidence and, therefore, the angular waves are assumed to be in a common direction, i.e. As a result of the unique features of the present invention, power systems may be installed by a user to meet variations in long term power demand through modular installation at great savings in invested capital.
Dolor Sordo Costado Derecho
Ideally, the heave and pitch motions of the unit 50 are maximized without making the yoke exorbitantly long. FIG. 15 is a schematic of the angles of rotation of the yoke of the unit in FIG. If a turbine is used, in order to insure that a constant head of pressure is available at the conversion means 110, a bottled nitrogen gas tank 194 shown in FIG. The unit represented by curve R1 has a raft length of 75 meters, a beam to length ratio of 0.3, a radius of gyration of three-tenths of the length of the raft and a hydraulic power system with constant hydraulic pressure. FIG. 15 shows the relationship between the hinge angle and the length of yoke 60 as the raft 70 heaves and pitches in response to wave motion. Electrical power at the Stewart Island, New Zealand site is transformed to 66,000 volts for transmission to shore through high voltage transmission lines 257, shown in FIG.
For final performance evaluation, including the effect of the cut-off point at high energy on economy, the scatter diagram must be used to represent the power production. Such shipboard equipment might be a diesel generator used to operate navigational lighting and communication equipment when the unit 50 is not generating its own electricity. 6 shows the pin 106 to be supported by roller bearings 113, a suitable journal bearing could also be used.
5 and 6. Dolor de espalda y piernas en el embarazo . Yoke 60 and raft 70 are hinged together so as to allow relative movement therebetween about the hinge line of hinge 98. Hinge 98 includes a female or U portion 102, a male or eye portion 104, and a pin 106. The structural frame 82 of yoke 60 forms the female portion 102 of the hinge 98 and the structural frame 83 of raft 70 forms the male portion 104 of hinge 98. The female portion 102 of hinge 98 receives the male portion 104. Female and male portions 102, 104 include aligned apertures 108, 109 for receiving the pin 106. The entire hinge is enclosed so as to be isolated from the corrosive environment. Electrical power can be generated on board the raft 70 as either AC or DC power.
Dolor De Estomago
From this platform, the useful energy generated by the array is combined and transmitted to shore. This two-dimensional spectrum is difficult to measure in real seas. The real sea not only has variations in wave height and frequency, but the direction of the waves is spread over a range of angles. The form of the spectrum is determined by the significant wave height, which is the average of the one-third highest waves and their wave period. The length is between 0.5 and 1.0 times the average annual wavelength for raft 70 and between 0.75 and 1.0 for unit 51 with three rafts 71. The precise length is determined by a detailed analysis of the seasonal variations of wave period. 14 represents the incident power in a wave with 1.9 meter wave height and a 10-second period. Still, the system, composed of a multiplicity of individual wave energy generating units, will produce power economically, competitive with conventional power sources.
Dolor De Espalda
However, another consideration is the total power produced by the system. During the tuning process, the power output of the system must be closely analyzed since as parameters are varied, the cost of the system will vary. It is an object of the present invention to overcome the deficiencies of the prior art and provide a wave driven power generation system which efficiently converts wave energy into electrical energy and which is cost effective to construct and maintain. Incident wave characteristics vary with geographic location and from season to season.
Dolor Muscular En El Pecho
The decrease in efficiency is small as the B/L increases from 0.1 to 0.3. As the ratio of B/L increases above 0.3 the absorption efficiency falls off quickly. Dolor lumbar sintoma embarazo . As the length of raft 70 increases the power absorbed increases monotonically in proportion to length in the narrow range of length shown. 3. The mooring means 300 includes a large buoy 302 ballasted to represent a resistance to the vertical forces imposed on mooring means 300 by yoke 60. Across the hinge line 90 at the raft-yoke interface, conversion means 110 mounted on raft 70 and yoke 60 are driven by the relative motion between yoke 60 and raft 70. Conversion means 110 includes hydraulic actuators 120 which displace hydraulic fluid into accumulators 162 which are pressurized.
- Retención de líquidos y sensación de pesadez
- Searching, grasping and recovering objects lost into the subsea template during ROV operations
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- Frío extremo
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- Edad y peso del bebé
Raft 70 and yoke 60 of unit 50 rotate about the hinge line in response to the motion of the waves 22 with one end of yoke 60 being held relatively stationary by buoy assembly 300. The opposing ends of raft 70 having ballast, pivot and swing up and down.
The time it takes for the wave crest to travel one wave length determines the wave frequency. For a given wave power density spectrum, the physical properties of the unit 50 are adjusted by the designer to achieve optimum power absorption, that is, maximum power per unit size of structure. 6. Moment of Inertia of Structure Mass and Added Mass. Pat. Nos. 562,317, 632,139, 694,242, 738,996, 882,883, and 917,411. These early patents relied on mechanical linkages between fixed floats to trap the rocking, lifting, falling, or longitudinal motion of the waves but were highly inefficient due to their mechanical complexities. It is the objective of the present invention to tune these physical parameters to produce an optimum response function so as to maximize the absorption of the power represented by the spectral density function of the wave field. As is hereinafter described in more detail, this is accomplished by determining the spectral density function of the typical waves for that region and varying the physical parameters of unit 50 to obtain an optimum response function of unit 50 to the typical waves making up the wave field.
FIG. 6 is a section view taken through plane 8–8 of the hinge of FIG.
In this manner, ring bus 240 would be a completely energized ring. For a sea state between 70 and 80 kilowatts per meter, an array of 60 units 51 will have an electrical capacity of 240 megawatts. Array Layout Referring now to FIGS. The array is moored to the sea floor by cables in a manner such that it is free to rotate so the floats maintain a desired position, i.e. Pat. No. Re. 31,111 (the Hagen array) and shown in FIG. FIG. 8 is a schematic representation of the hydraulic circuits of the unit of FIG. A more complex but more accurate representation of the angular dependence is set forth in Mitsuyasu, supra. FIG. 6 is a section view taken through plane 8–8 of the hinge of FIG. For the spectral density function shown in FIG. The radius of gyration is shown on FIG. Pat. Causas de dolor de pie . No. 3,928,967 utilizes a variable stroke rotary pump to convert the pivotal motion of its energy removing member into usable hydraulic energy.