For some embodiments, the end torsional stiffness elements 1134 adjacent to one of the ends of generator 100 may be passive, whereas the end torsional stiffness elements 1134 adjacent to the other of the ends of generator 100 may be either passive or active. For other embodiments, the end torsional stiffness elements 1134 adjacent to both of the ends of generator 100 may be active. Sj (Figure 4) from controller 450 for adjusting the stiffness of the active end stiffness torsional elements. Piezoelectric material 112 can produce a charge (e.g., output a voltage) in response to vibratory bending and/or torsional stresses imparted thereto by a fluid flowing over generator 100. Table 1 gives some examples of suitable piezoelectric materials. One or more of the side boundary constraints, e.g., side stiffness elements 1136, may be either passive or active, where an active side boundary constraint may include piezoelectric material or shape memory material.
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Side boundary constraints, such as side stiffness elements 1136, may be physically coupled to opposing sides of generator 100, e.g., the leading edge 1150 and the trailing edge 1152 of generator 100 with regard to the fluid flow, and may be passive or active. Figure 11 illustrates a fluid power generation system having a generator coupled to a plurality of boundary constraints, according to another embodiment. Figure 16 is a flowchart of a method of operating a fluid power generation system, according to another embodiment. Figure 4 illustrates a converter and a controller as a portion of a fluid power generation system, according to another embodiment.
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For the reasons stated above, and for other reasons stated below which will become apparent to those skilled in the art upon reading and understanding the present specification, there is a need in the art for alternatives to existing fluid power generation systems, such as wind energy conversion systems and kinetic hydropower generation systems. Figure 10 illustrates a fluid power generation system having a cantilevered generator, according to another embodiment. Figure 7 is a top isometric view of a generator having a plurality of electrodes on one side and a single electrode on an opposite side, according to another embodiment. That is, electrodes 114 may be electrically coupled to (e.g., by direct physical contact with) opposing surfaces of piezoelectric material 112. For example, electrodes 114 may be in direct physical contact with the opposing surfaces of piezoelectric material 112. For some embodiments, a protective material may be formed on the opposing surfaces of piezoelectric material 112, and then electrodes 114 may be subsequently electrically coupled to the protective material.
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Piezoelectric material 112 may be interposed between electrodes 114, e.g., layers (e.g., films) of electrically conductive material. Dolor repentino de rodilla . Figures 7 and 8 are respectively top and bottom isometric views illustrating a generator 700, wfnere common numbering is used in Figure 1 and Figures 7 and 8 to denote substantially similar (e.g., the same components). For some embodiments, the vibration characteristics of a generator may be changed by changing the shape of that generator, as shown in Figure 6 for a generator 600, where common numbering is used in Figures 1 and 6 to denote substantially similar (e.g., the same components). This involves high levels of torque and accompanying high gear-mesh forces that can cause the gears to fail, thus meaning considerable maintenance to reduce the amount of failures. That is, these machines have a large number of moving parts that are subject to failure and that require considerable maintenance, resulting in high maintenance costs.
Many of these turbines operate at relatively low rotational speeds (e.g., typically 20 rpm for wind turbines) and require gears to increase the rotational speed up to rotational speeds that are useful for the generator (e.g., typically 1500 rpm for a 1.5 MW generator). The piezoelectric material 112 is configured to generate an alternating electrical charge (e.g., an AC voltage) in response to generator 100 vibrating. One of the electrical conductor and the magnetic field generator is attached to the membrane and configured to move with the membrane. For some embodiments, a smoother 420, such as a capacitive smoother, may receive the rectified AC voltage from rectifier 410 for smoothing the rectified AC into a DC voltage Vqc- The DC voltage Vqc, and associated DC electrical power, may then be output from smoother 420 and may be used directly for driving an electrical load and/or may be stored, e.g., in a battery.
Controller 450 may be further configured to determine particular frequencies, such as substantially the resonant frequencies of generator 100, for different flow rates at particular power outputs (AC or DC), e.g., where values corresponding to the particular power outputs may be input to controller by a user or may programmed in controller 450, e.g., as set-point values. Controller 450 may be further configured to determine the frequency of the AC voltage Vac.
Controller 450 may then output one or more signals S for adjusting the vibration control parameter values of generator 100 so that generator 100 vibrates at substantially the particular frequency and thus generates substantially the particular power. For example, controller 450 may include a look-up table 465 that includes the particular frequencies versus the flow rate at each of the particular power outputs. S/ (Figure 4) from controller 450 for adjusting the stiffness of the active end translational stiffness elements. In response to receiving electrical signal SENS150 from sensor 150 indicative of a flow rate, controller 450 may output one or more signals S·
Controller 450 may be electrically coupled to a flow sensor 150 configured to sense the flow rate (e.g., flow velocity) of the fluid in which generator 100 is located and that is flowing over generator 100, e.g., upstream of generator 100, as shown in Figure 1, or away from generator 100, such as a free-stream flow rate. For example, generator may be called a power generator, in that it can generate electrical power while vibrating in response to a fluid flowing thereover.
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For some embodiments, a power conditioner (not shown) may receive the electrical power from smoother 420 and may be used to facilitate power transfer. For some embodiments, the end translational stiffness elements 1132 adjacent to one of the ends of generator 100 may be passive, whereas the end translational stiffness elements 1132 adjacent to the other of the ends of generator 100 may be either passive or active. For some embodiments, the side boundary constraints physically coupled to one of the sides of generator 100 may be passive, whereas the side boundary constraints physically coupled to the other of the sides of generator 100 may be either passive or active. For water applications, generator 100 may be submerged within a body of water, such as a river, ocean, lake, or a manmade channel, etc. Alternatively, the control parameters may be actively controlled, in which case the vibration characteristics may be actively controlled for other embodiments.
Figure 1 illustrates a generator 100, e.g., a voltage-generating strip.
In the following detailed description of the present embodiments, reference is made to the accompanying drawings that form a part hereof, and in which are shown by way of illustration specific embodiments that may be practiced. Shape memory materials have the ability to return to their original shapes through a phase transformation that can take place by inducing heat in the shape memory materials. Applying different voltages to a piezoelectric stiffness element causes the piezoelectric stiffness element to exert different forces on generator 900 that act to produce different stiffness. For one embodiment, generator 100 includes an electrical-charge-producing (e.g., a voltage-generating) material, such as piezoelectric material 112, e.g., a piezoelectric film. Figure 1 illustrates a generator 100, e.g., a voltage-generating strip. Medicamentos para dolor muscular espalda . Since the vibration characteristics may determine the power output of generator 100, the power output of generator 100 may be passively and/or actively controlled.
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100 in response to the value indicative of the received frequency and the value indicative of the desired frequency differing by at least a certain amount. Generator 100 is configured to vibrate in response to a fluid flowing thereover. The relative movement causes a change in the strength of the magnetic field applied to the electrical conductor, and the change in the strength of the magnetic field applied to the electrical conductor induces a current flowing in the conductor.
The stiffness of a shape memory material can be controlled with an electrical current. In the case of a shape memory material spring, the electrical signal Sm-j may be current. The electrical leads 118 direct AC voltage Vac. Leads 118 may direct the AC voltage Vac to a converter 400 (Figure 4) to convert the AC voltage Vac to a DC voltage Vqc for storage and/or for driving an electrical load. Each of electrical leads 118 and electrical lead 718 may direct an AC voltage Vac. Converter 400 may include a rectifier 410 configured to rectify AC voltage Vac into a rectified AC voltage. Non-limiting examples of shape memory materials include copper-zinc-aluminium-nickel, copper-aluminium-nickel, nickel-titanium (NiTi), etc. For example, active masses 500 may be shape memory materials. However, when a shape memory material is heated, e.g.