The guide members 36 are positioned at their lower ends within permanent sleeves 38 which are generally L-shaped in cross section and permanently secured to the pump housing. 5, a float carriage generally indicated at 40 is mounted for vertical movement within the rigid supporting frame 30. The float carriage comprises a plurality of generally L-shaped channel members 42 which are interconnected as shown to provide a generally rectangular box-like open carrier frame. After the wave has passed, the counterweights force the pistons 80 downwardly, thereby pumping the water in the lower pumping chambers 96 through the vertical pipe sections 90, open valves 98, and pipe sections 94 to the surrounding body of water. The rod 64 is connected at 62 to the cable as previously described, and the bottom of the rod is secured to a counterweight 82. The function of the counterweight 82 is to bias the rod and thus the float carriage 42 downwardly at all times so as to return the piston rod toward the bottom of the pump housing after the wave crest has passed.
When the crest of the wave has passed, a counterweight attached to the pump piston biases the same downwardly thereby pumping the water to the open body of water in which the pump assemblies are mounted. The silo or cofferdam is mounted in the desired depth of water adjacent the shore thereby defining and confining a relatively shallow reservoir, with water being withdrawn from the reservoir prior to operation of the system as necessary to establish the desired hydrostatic head resulting from the difference in height of the water in the reservoir and the height of the water in the open body of water surrounding the cofferdam or silo. The size and location of the cofferdam are such that the necessary differential in water levels between the reservoir and the open body of water is maintained.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION A principal object of the present invention is to provide a wave action generating system which can be used essentially at any location where the vertical component of the wave forces meets or exceeds a level to make the system economically feasible. These and other objects of the invention will become apparent as the following description proceeds in particular reference to the application drawings. 1, there is illustrated therein one form of the invention in which a silo generally indicated at 10 is installed on the floor of a body of water, and a series of pump assemblies commonly designated at 12 are mounted on the exterior walls of the silo.
Although only a relatively few pump assemblies have been shown in FIG. In accordance with the present invention, a support structure is mounted in the body of water so as to define a relatively shallow reservoir, with the depth of water in the reservoir being at a predetermined level, for example, 15 to 50 feet, below the water level in the surrounding body of water. Thus, the support structure serves the important function of establishing and maintaining the relatively shallow reservoir, through the withdrawal and replenishment of water as described, and consequently the hydrostatic head existing exterior to the support structure.
This maintained hydrostatic head drives the turbine generators. By pumping water from the reservoir and subsequently replenishing the reservoir with water discharged from the turbine generators, a predetermined differential or head can be maintained between the water level in the reservoir and the water level surrounding the silo. As a result, the water level in the reservoir is reduced. Dolor muscular en pantorrillas . The bottom of the silo should be sufficiently below the floor so as to preclude or minimize the seepage of water beneath the walls of the silo into the interior thereof whereby the water depth of the reservoir confined within the silo can be more closely controlled. The silo is constructed in the body of water at the desired location, which is determined to a large extend by the depth of water.
Dolor Sordo Significado
A rigid supporting frame generally indicated at 30 is located above the pump housing and includes channel support members 32 which are secured at their outer ends to a plate or strap 34 and anchored at their inner ends to the silo wall. Once the silo is formed, the pump housings are mounted thereon, and the rigid supporting frames are anchored to the silo walls above the pump housings. In the FIG. 1 form of the invention, at least part of the silo would of course extend above the water level, taking into account tidal effects on water level, and the maximum waves that can be reasonably expected. This average takes into account the fact a particular pump is not always exposed to the crest of the wave. During formation of the silo, water withdrawal lines 14 are positioned and precast into the silo, as are openings for the turbine generators 18. It will be understood, although not shown, that the turbine generators will be housed as necessary to protect the generators from the submerged environment.
The pipes through which water is withdrawn and passed to the bottom pumping chambers are submerged in the reservoir, as are the discharge outlets of the turbine generators. The turbine generators are preferably mounted at or below the levels of the pipes through which the water is drawn from the reservoir, with the water being discharged from the turbines to the reservoir to complete the cycle.
A bottom spring 84 is mounted on the bottom wall 86 of the pump housing to cushion the piston 80 as it approaches its bottom position, and an upper spring 88 is mounted on the upper wall of the pump housing for cushioning and limiting the upward travel of the piston 80 when the float members are subjected to wave forces. If constructed of concrete, the walls of the silo are preferably approximately two feet in thickness, although the wall thickness may be more or less, depending on the height of the silo, the number of pump and float assemblies, and environmental conditions.
3 and 4, the pipe 14 communicates with a vertical pipe section 90 the upper end of which is mounted in an opening 92 provided therefor in the bottom wall 86 of the pump housing. A third pipe section 94 also communicates with the vertical pipe section 90 for discharging water from the lower pump chamber 96 during the pumping stroke. Once installed, the cost per kilowatt hour of energy production is more than competitive at present rates of alternative energy sources, and with the continual increase in cost of fossil fuels and other forms of energy sources, wave action systems should prove to be of substantial economic benefit. In this regard, the art is replete with systems of a more simplified construction, but the energy derived is not commercially significant. Wave action generators for producing electric energy are well known in the art.
Dolor Neuropático Que Es
This facilitates constructionand assembly of the system components, as well as providing additional space for obtaining access to the components where maintenance may be necessary. Dolor muscular en las piernas por ejercicio . In the event steel plate is used as a covering material, a cathodic protection system is preferably employed where saline water conditions exist so as to minimize or eliminate corrosion. A further advantage of the concentric arrangement of alternate pump housings is that the radial spacing of alternate float assemblies subjects the same to varying wave conditions. Although the dimensional and weight factors in the above calculations are non-variable once the installation is in place, the volume of the pumping chamber will vary depending on wave conditions.
Thus, more efficient utilization of the complicated and everchanging vertical wave component is effected. All electric generating systems of this general type operate on the principal of using the vertical motion inherent in the formation and movement of the waves to effect vertical movement of a component of the generating system. This latter type of system is disclosed in our pending application referred to above, and examples of the vertical-to-rotary systems are disclosed in U.S. To the extent that corrodable metal is employed, cathodic protection systems are preferably employed, particularly in saline water installations. Although the particular materials employed in the system can be selected as desired, it is preferred that materials be used so as to minimize maintenance of the system. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Referring now in more detail to the application drawings, wherein like parts are indicated by like reference numerals, and initially to FIG.
- “Psicopatología Infantil” Jiménez Hernández, Manuel. Ediciones Aljibe. (Fobia escolar)
- Por adelgazar de manera brusca
- Evitar los productos cosméticos grasosos e irritantes
- Intoxicación por cianatos (combustión de ciertos plásticos, cianuro, etc.)
Although the dimensions of the silo are not absolutely critical, studies have indicated that a silo approximately 80 feet high and having an exterior diameter of 60-90 feet will provide the desired pressure differential. As previously described, the support structure for the pump assemblies and related float structure can comprise a cofferdam rather than a silo construction as shown in FIGS. The closed top silo form of FIG.